This article examines ethnicity-related differences and commonalities in women attending urban American universities. To follow up on a pilot study that suggested ethnic differences in self-reported sociotropy (social dependency), an empirical study of 121 undergraduate women attending New York metropolitan universities examined values and attitudes theoretically related to individualism in four different ethnic groups of college women: European Americans, African Americans, Eastern European immigrants, and Caribbean immigrants. Self-reports revealed that women of African descent perceive themselves as less interdependent, value reliance and dependency on others less, and value self-reliance more than do women of European descent. No differences were found between immigrants and American-born women. Results are discussed in terms of economic and social influences on cultural and personal development. The article also discusses implications for pedagogic techniques and ways of interacting with students.
Mentoring is a popular strategy to develop future leaders. Unfortunately, traditionally disadvantaged group members (TDGMs) face challenges in the mentoring process. Extending the analogy of the glass ceiling illustrates these challenges. First, the shortage of suitable mentors makes it difficult for TDGMs to pass through the “glass door” to access positions and establish early career success. Second, negative biases and discrimination limit the sponsorship of TDGMs to climb the “glass staircase” and develop leadership acumen. Third, the necessary career-related support needed to break the “glass ceiling” is lacking. e-Mentoring is argued to be a tool to help shatter this glass.
Education shapes the power relations in society. Foucault’s concept “discursive formation” has strengthened analyses of the ways in which institutions establish orders of truth and, specifically, reinforce certain identities or subjectivities in matters of sexualities and status. The present study addresses discursive formation by interrogating the relations between sexuality education, diversity, and self-formation in Hong Kong’s higher education institutions. There are two general components of the study. The first concerns the extent to which “critical pedagogy,” adopted in gender and sexuality curricula, fosters diversity and challenges the dominant discourses on sexuality perpetuated in higher education institutions, and how this pedagogy differs from the “school-based” sexuality education advocated in primary and secondary schools. The second component of this study will focus on student-initiated activities as well as youth perspectives relative to sexuality and identities. Interviews were conducted with university and college students between the ages of twenty and twenty-eight. The interviews addressed the potentiality of student-initiated activities (e.g., workplace practicum, sexuality- or gender-related gatherings) in cultivating students as critical and conscious subjects through a more informal and contextualized form of sexuality education. The findings suggest that there is an urgent demand for sex-friendly and diverse spaces where students may continuously, exploratively, and honestly reflect on sexualities.