Re-imagining Cosmopolitanism in Post-Apartheid South Africa: Reviving Historical “Cosmubuntuism” in Forced Removal Spaces for a Democratic Future

While the colonial-apartheid governance was obsessed with “segregation” as a policy imperative, culturally diverse communities were established in many South African urban spaces. When the National Party came to power in 1948, these culturally mixed spaces became prime targets for destruction as they represented the antithesis of apartheid segregation: integration. With the promulgation of the Group Areas Act (1950), places like District Six, South End, Fietas (Pageview), and many others, were bulldozed to the ground and their inhabitants were forcibly removed to resettle in separate, racially exclusive townships. Given the post-1994 democratic transformation and its subsequent struggle to undo the legacy of colonial-apartheid, those cultural mixed spaces represent the best examples of what contemporary South Africa needs to aspire to become a democratic society. Considering the contestation around the concept “cosmopolitan” to describe culturally integrated living spaces, this paper defines those historical communities as “cosmubuntu” communities, emerging from pre-colonial Ubuntu communities. An argument is constructed that “cosmubuntu” communities go beyond Eurocentric cosmopolitanism, but also grew out of the Khoi-san expression “!ke e: /xarra //ke”—“diverse people unite”—which informs the African humanist philosophy of Ubuntu: “I am human through other humans” Using the historical case study methodology, this article conceptualises “cosmubuntuism” and illustrates its manifestations in three communities destroyed by forced removals: Fietas (Pageview), District Six, and South End. Forced removals literature is employed to answer the research question: what are the manifestations of “cosmubuntuism” in pre-apartheid South Africa and how can this concept encapsulate “unity in diversity” in a post-apartheid South Africa? Recommendations are made to integrate the history of “cosmubuntuism” and forced removals in a post-apartheid curriculum.

Challenges of Immigrant Parents: Narratives of South Korean Mothers in the US Context

Parents of diverse students can be one of the most abundant sources for sociocultural knowledge. Therefore, this study provides experiential knowledge through the stories of immigrant parents, aimed at deepening educators’ understanding and raising their consciousness of diverse students and families, and equity in the educational system. Four South Korean immigrant mothers, who moved to the US in adulthood and were mothers of children attending public school, were purposefully selected as the participants. A narrative inquiry was employed to listen to their schooling experiences in the US. Three main challenges were identified from the Korean immigrant mothers’ narratives. Practical implications, as well as suggestions for future research were discussed.

Does Diversity Really Matter?: The Interplay between Students’ Race and Their Teachers’ Level of Cultural Responsiveness

The United States continues to experience a persistent academic achievement gap between European American students and students of color from historically marginalized groups. In response, many researchers have found that culturally responsive educators are able to significantly reduce achievement gaps. In an attempt to better understand the achievement gap and cultural responsiveness, the researchers examined whether teachers’ level of cultural responsiveness differed based on the racial makeup of the student body. Using several theories, as identified in “Culturally Responsive Educational Theories” (2013), a culturally responsive survey was developed and administered to measure teachers’ initial level of cultural responsiveness. The study revealed that teachers who taught in schools with higher percentages of students of color had higher levels of overall cultural responsiveness as well as higher levels of cultural responsiveness as it relates to their efficacy and as it relates to their perspectives on students’ views and values. The findings strongly suggest that culturally responsive qualities are enhanced when educators have greater exposure to diverse learners.